Monthly Archives: March 2015

A Pain in the Tail…bone (Part 2: Treatment)

“Due to the dearth of research available and the low levels of evidence in the published studies that were located we are unable to recommend the most effective conservative intervention for the treatment of coccydynia. Additional research is needed regarding the treatment for this painful condition.” 

This statement comes from a 2013 systematic review on conservative treatments for coccydynia… isn’t it so encouraging? We discussed what coccyx pain meant, the causes, and the examination approach last week in Part 1 of “A pain in the tail…bone.”  Today’s post will take a close look at my approach for treating people with tailbone pain and what we do know in the current research. Unfortunately, as you see from the comment above, research for the best treatment for tailbone pain is significantly lacking…so we’ll have to rely on my clinical experience as well as the knowledge from courses I have attended and practitioners I have collaborated with in the past.

So, what should treatment for tailbone pain include?

1. Pain reducing strategies: Day one of treatment should always include recommendations for reducing pain by changing some basic daily habits. Typically, this includes:

  • Cold packs/hot packs: Basic, I know, but they feel good and can help a sore coccyx feel better after a long day. I prefer ice, but others prefer heat. I recommend using for about 10-15 minutes, a few times per day or as needed. Recent recommendations always include using cold/heat as needed.
  • Alignment, & Cushions when needed: Alignment, especially in sitting, is very important for reducing pressure on the tailbone in the initial phase of treatment. Slumpy postures actually put more pressure against the tailbone and neutral postures distribute weight to the bony parts of our pelvis more evenly. Along with this, firm comfortable chairs tend to support a more neutral posture, but cushy couches or chairs usually promote a more slumped posture. As I mentioned in my previous post, many people with tailbone pain tend to develop a side-twisted sitting posture. It makes sense– they’re trying to unweight the tailbone–but over time, this “wonky” sitting can lead to low back pain, and that’s not fun for anyone! So, we need to learn to sit up comfortably, and a good tailbone cushion can be a helpful tool for that. Note: Donut cushions don’t tend to help as much with tailbone pain unless the pain is totally referred from the pelvic floor musces. These unweight the perineum due to the center cut-out, but they don’t unweight the coccyx.  A cushion that has a back cut-out, like the ones pictured tend to be more helpful.
  • Coccyx cushion from Amazon.com

    Aylio Seat Cushion

  • Body Scanning or “Check-ins”: Many people with tailbone pain will clench muscles around the tailbone as a protective strategy–usually the glutes and the pelvic floor to be precise. As we discussed previously, these muscles can refer to the coccyx, so it is important that we decrease this hypervigilant clenching pattern. I typically recommend scanning the body, or checking-in, a few times a day to feel if muscles are clenched hart or relaxed. If you feel any clenching, try to drop the muscles and allow them to let go.
  • Pelvic Floor Drops: As mentioned previously, many people with coccyx pain have tender and over-contracting pelvic floor muscles. Pelvic floor drops are exercises that encourage a completely relaxed pelvic floor. Typically, these pair well with breathing exercises as functional diaphragm use can encourage appropriate pelvic floor relaxation.
  • Stretches: My favorite stretch for someone with coccyx pain is what I call “The frog.” This stretch not only helps to stretch out the buttock muscles, but also is a position of optimal relaxation for the pelvic floor! Other stretches to open the pelvic or stretch the muscles around the pelvis can also be helpful–but this one is my go-to on day
Performed with arms holding knees, dropping open to the side (should not be painful or uncomfortable!)

Performed with arms holding knees, dropping open to the side (should not be painful or uncomfortable!)

2. Manual Therapy Techniques: The goal of manual therapy should be to decrease soft tissue sensitivity/pain and to improve the mobility of the coccyx, SI joint and low back if indicated. Typically we do the following:

  • Soft tissue treatments: This should not be a horribly painful experience! Skilled clinicians can help to improve sensitivity and tender spots in the buttocks, hips, low back muscles and pelvic floor muscles. For the pelvic floor, this can be done externally, vaginally (in women) or rectally. Specifically, the coccygeus, iliococcygeus, pubococcygeus and obturator internus muscles should be evaluated and treated. Sometimes dry needling can be helpful also in reducing soft tissue sensitivity.
  • Coccyx Mobilization: The coccyx can be mobilized some externally with a person in sitting (I use what is called the “closed-drawer technique” here). The best way to mobilize the coccyx is with internal rectal treatments. Internal rectal mobilizations or manipulations can include direct mobilization into flexion or extension, distraction of the coccyx and mobilization into sidebending. The most recent review I found published in 2013 found 3 studies looking at intrarectal manipulation for coccyx pain and all of them did show some improvements in pain for patients…but from a research standpoint, 3 studies is hardly anything and to be honest, the studies weren’t that good. So, we’re stuck with some of my clinical opinion 🙂 I believe intrarectal mobilization can be hugely beneficial for patients! And, I shouldn’t have to say it–but it should always be done by someone trained and skilled in performing it.
  • Lumbar & SI treatment: I highlighted in part 1 that many men and women would tailbone pain often have low back and SI pain as well. In these cases, these areas should be addressed and treated through manual therapy techniques as well as specific exercise recommendations

I often will also use a little bit of taping to help support what I do manually and give my client some input on what I want their bodies to do. I like kinesiotape the best for this and use a few different techniques depending on the person. McConnel tape can also work well.

3. Retrain the Nervous System: Our brain rules– remember, pain is our brain’s alarm system to tell use there is a problem and to protect. A person who has had coccyx pain for a long period of time may develop a sensitized nervous system–and it is so important that this be addressed! So as not to re-invent the wheel, you can read more about it in my previous post reviewing the book, Why Pelvic Pain Hurtsand in my previous post summarizing my presentation to the Atlanta Interstitial Cystitis Support Group. 

Side-note: Pain neuroscience is currently not discussed often enough in the research regarding treatment for coccydynia. I think this is a huge problem–we know that experiencing pain for a long period of time truly impacts the nervous system and we can’t ignore that! This case study showed 2 patients treated for tailbone pain–one was acute, treated immediately and got better quickly. The second had pain for over a year before being treated and did not get as good results– could this “brain retraining” be the missing piece? I think it can’t be ignored.

4. Manage Bowel, Bladder and Sexual Problems: Remember, the pelvic floor muscles attach to the tailbone, so it is so common for people with tailbone pain to notice bowel, bladder or sexual symptoms.  This should always be addressed with good behavioral education and appropriate treatment techniques. I’ll leave it at that…because each one could be a few blog posts in and of themselves.

5. Return to Normal Function: I talk about this in almost every post, but ultimately, our goal is always to get you back to moving, sitting, exercising, etc. as quickly and effectively as we can. As pain decreases, our goal is to retrain the system to function optimally. We do this by retraining proper patterns of muscular activation (yep, diaphragm, pelvic floor, abdominals, low back…with all of the other muscles!), teaching movement with lots of good variation, and a lot of education.

So, that about sums it up… PTs out there, did I miss anything important? I would love to hear from you and start a discussion!

For those of you out there dealing with tailbone pain–please let us know how we can help you better! If you have not tried working with a pelvic physical therapist in the past, I do strongly recommend it!

Advertisements

A Pain in the Tail…bone (Part 1- What is it? How does it happen? How does it feel?)

Let me tell you a little story. Several years ago, I was on my way to a continuing education course in Minneapolis, MN. I arrived to the airport early for my flight and settled in at the gate with a good book waiting for the boarding call. My flight was delayed…and delayed… a one hour wait became a four hour wait. But, I was reading a great book. I believe I got up one time over those four hours. Then I boarded the plane and sat for another 3 hours (finished the book!). Then I had tailbone pain.

Thankfully, in my case, I was headed to a course full of pelvic health practitioners, and I begged one of them to treat my tailbone on the first day. (Yes, it literally went, “Hi, my name is Jessica, will you treat my coccyx?”) She did, and one day later it felt totally better.

The truth is, my story is not a totally uncommon one. I sat in one place for 7 hours straight (likely in a slumped posture)– and my tailbone didn’t like it. I was lucky, because I know about tailbone pain…I was able to get it treated and I got better very quickly. Many people with the same pain will stay in pain for a long time before getting the treatment that helps. So, my goal today is to tell you exactly what tailbone pain is, how it happens, and what it feels like… and then in part 2 to tell you what you can do about it.

First, where exactly is the tailbone? Seems easy, but you’d be surprised how many people don’t actually know where it is.  Several months ago, I received a referral from a PT colleague to treat a nice lady who was having “tailbone pain.” She came into my office and when I asked where her pain was, she pointed directly to the sacrum.  I have had this happen in reverse too where a patient told me his “back hurt” but pointed to his coccyx. So, where is the tailbone? 

spine-957249_640


The coccyx (tailbone) refers to the 3-5 fused bones at the very end of the spine. These fused segments attach to the sacrum. To feel your coccyx, slide your fingers down from the sacrum between each cheek of your bottom. You will feel a very small boney structure, and can often feel the tip of the coccyx (which will be very close to the anus!).

Several ligaments and muscles attach to the coccyx, including the gluteus maximus and the pelvic floor muscles.  The coccyx does not stay still when we move. In fact, the coccyx moves as we sit and moves again as we stand.

coccyx

Now that we got that out of the way, here are a few things to know about coccydynia (tailbone pain): 

-What is it and what are the common symptoms associated with it? Coccydynia translated means “pain in the coccyx,” and that is how coccydynia is defined.  Most people with coccydynia will complain of pain in sitting (especially on hard surfaces), pain in standing for a long period, and pain when moving from sitting to standing or from standing to sitting. Since the pelvic floor muscles attach to the coccyx, many people with coccyx pain will have pelvic floor muscle involvement to some extent and may complain of constipation or pain with bowel movements, changes in urinary frequency/urgency or pain with sexual intercourse. Clinically, I also will often find that people with tailbone pain will begin to have low back pain too– I believe this occurs as people alter sitting positions and “side-sit” to avoid sitting on the tailbone.

-How common is it? The prevalence is actually unknown. Some literature state that it is “uncommon,” but I don’t really think that’s true. I think it’s likely under-reported (as are many things in the pelvis), and I believe the lack of understanding on treatment options contributes to this. Coccydynia seems to affect women more than men (5x more approximately!) and is more common in people with obesity. 

-What causes it? Coccyx pain is typically divided into two categories– traumatic and non-traumatic. Traumatic coccydynia typically occurs either with a backwards fall on the bottom or during childbirth. In these cases, the coccyx can become bruised, dislocated or even fractured. Nontraumatic coccydynia can occur due to prolonged or repetitive sitting on a hard surface (microtrauma), hypomobility or hypermobility of the coccyx (basically, the tailbone isn’t moving properly), degenerative joint or disc disease, and other variations in the structure of the coccyx. In addition, the coccyx can sometimes become painful if a person has overactive pelvic floor muscles as these muscles attach to the coccyx.  Note: Although much less common, coccyx pain can sometimes come from more serious problems like an infection or even cancer. It’s always important to see a skilled health care provider who can help you determine the contributors to your pain. 

-How is coccydynia diagnosed? As I said previously, coccydynia refers to pain in the coccyx, so the best way to diagnose coccyx pain is with a thorough history of the pain and an exam involving touching the coccyx to determine if it is uncomfortable to the person. (This is where some clinicians run into issues…you see, the tailbone is close to the anus, and people don’t always like going there. But it is SO important as a clinician to actually touch the tailbone to help determine why the person is experiencing pain! No one would examine shoulder pain without touching the shoulder! So, please clinicians, palpate the tailbone. Soapbox over.)

I know you would think that most people would “know” if their tailbone was painful…but like we discussed above, many people do not even realize where the tailbone is! Also, it is important to note that tailbone pain can be radicular in nature, meaning that nerves in the area are contributing to the symptoms or it can be “referred pain” meaning that it is coming from a different structure. Some of the muscles that can contribute to tailbone pain are the pelvic floor muscles, the obturator internus ( a deep hip rotator) and the gluteus maximus. I have seen several patients that felt pain in their tailbone that was actually coming from tenderness in these muscles. That’s why an exam with palpation is so important.

Sphincter Ani, Levator Ani, Coccygeus, Obturator Internus (2)

Image from Travell and Simon, Trigger Point Manual

– How is the coccyx examined? Examination with a physician typically will include a subjective history, physical exam and may also include some type of diagnostic imaging (x-ray, MRI). Typically, when a person comes into my office seeking physical therapy for coccydynia or tailbone pain, my initial assessment includes the following:

  • A comprehensive history to understand what the person believes is causing the pain, what makes pain better/worse, obstetric history, bladder/bowel history and symptoms, sexual history and symptoms
  • A movement exam– basically taking a person through movements of the spine, sitting, standing, squatting to see how the person moves and what movements (if any) bring on the pain, worsen it, or alleviate it. I also will feel the coccyx in sitting vs. slumping to feel the movement of the coccyx and identify pain.
  • An external assessment of the spine– Mobilizing the segments of the low back, the sacrum and then the coccyx helps me identify which structures may be involved in the person’s discomfort.
  • An external muscle assessment– feeling the muscles of the low back, buttocks, pelvic floor and thighs to see if the muscles are tender and if that tenderness contributes to tailbone pain.
  • An internal assessment of the pelvic floor muscles and coccyx- For patients experiencing significant pain, I will often defer this to the 2nd visit or even later depending on the person. The best way to assess the coccyx is by an internal rectal assessment by a very skilled practitioner. This examination allows a clinician to feel the movement of the coccyx and assess the muscles around the coccyx for tenderness. (Note: examination and treatment should always be a “team” decision. If a person feels uncomfortable with an internal exam and does not wish to have one, the practitioner should respect that and treat the person as well as she can with external approaches)

1115_Muscles_of_the_Pelvic_Floor

How is tailbone pain treated and what can you do NOW to make it better? Stay tuned next week for Part 2… 🙂 

As always, I love to hear from you! Please let me know if you have any questions or comments! Happy Friday!

~ Jessica

Can physical therapy help a “bladder problem?” Highlights from my presentation at the Atlanta Interstitial Cystitis Support Group

Jessica IC Support Group

Yesterday, I was fortunate to speak with the Atlanta area Interstitial Cystitis (IC)Support Group regarding physical therapy interventions for men and women with IC/PBS (Painful Bladder Syndrome).  I love working with men and women with IC for so many reasons. First, IC can be a fairly scary diagnosis for a lot of people as there is not one specific known “cause”, nor is there a “cure” that works for everyone. Dr. Google can also cause quite a bit of fear as the newly diagnosed read “horror stories” of people who have suffered for years and years with debilitating pain.

The amazing thing is that often times, bladder pain can actually have strong musculoskeletal components and neuromuscular components that are easily addressed with a skilled physical therapist–but in order to understand that fully, we will have to dive in a little deeper. So, here are some of the highlights from the presentation I gave to this wonderful group last night. (Sidenote: IC/PBS is different in everyone, meaning that some treatments work great for some and not so well for others. This blog highlights physical therapy interventions for IC, but please know that each person with IC will have a different journey toward recovery. I strongly recommend building a network of health care providers and finding the treatment that works the best for you.)

First, we started with a little pop quiz–and we’ll start you with the same, to test your knowledge on physical therapy for people with IC :). 

1. True or False.  It is common for men and women with IC/PBS to have tenderness and banding of the pelvic floor muscles as well as other soft tissues structures around the pelvis.

True. A study by Peters and colleagues in 2007 estimated that 87% of people with IC/PBS also have pelvic floor muscle tenderness.

2. True or False.   Traditional pelvic floor strengthening (Kegels) are helpful in reducing pain for men or women with IC/PBS.

False. For people with tender pelvic floor muscles, traditional kegel exercises are actually contraindicated. The American Urological Association’s Guidelines for the Evaluation and Treatment of IC states that people who are receiving physical therapy with kegel exercises should stop treatment and seek out care from someone with advanced training in working with this population.

3. True or False.  The most recent American Urological Association’s Guidelines for the Evaluation and Treatment of IC/PBS strongly recommends physical therapy for men and women diagnosed with IC/PBS.

True. I know, I sort of gave it away in my answer up above. But physical therapy interventions such as education on IC and dietary modifications, use of cold/hot packs, stress management strategies, managing tender points in muscles, pelvic floor relaxation exercises and managing constipation/sexual pain are considered first-line treatments in the most recent guidelines. Of note, manual physical therapy including connective tissue mobilization is a second-line treatment.

In order to better understand how physical therapy can help someone with IC, we need to look a little deeper into why the muscles around the pelvis become tender in the first place. At my presentation last night, we spent some time discussing the muscles of the hips and abdomen as well as the pelvic floor muscles. If you aren’t familiar with these muscles already, you can take a quick course by reading Tracy Sher’s article here.

bladder in pelvis

We then spent some time discussing some of the reasons the muscles and the soft tissues of the pelvis become tender when someone has IC. Specifically, we discussed the following mechanisms:

1) Tension response to pain: Basically, if the bladder is hurting, I will likely contract the muscles around it to “protect” the painful area. Over time, those muscles can become fatigued and tender.

2) Viscerosomatic reflex: When the brain is receiving a “danger” message from the bladder for a long period of time, there will often be an increase in sympathetic nerve activity (fight or flight response) which can lead to increased inflammation and decreased blood flow in the muscles and the connective tissue around the organ. Over time, this can contribute to tender muscles around the organ. We also often will see that muscles which are innervated by nerves at the same spinal cord level will also have some increased sensitivity and tenderness.

3) Somatovisceral reflex: This is basically the reflex above, but in reverse. Tendernesss in the muscles or a “danger” message from the muscles can also create that same sequelae of events which may lead to increased sensitivity at an organ near those muscles. The cool thing is that we can use this to our advantage because treating the muscles and tender soft tissues can actually help to decrease the bladder irritation!

Typically, for people with IC, we see connective tissue restrictions in the suprapubic area, abdomen, thighs, buttock and perineal area. We also will see tender and sensitive muscles including the pelvic floor muscles, adductor muscles, hip flexors, hamstrings, piriformis and gluteal muscles. Treating these muscles with manual therapy and connective tissue mobilization can help to improve blood flow, decrease inflammatory chemicals and improve the sensitivity in these structures. You can read more about connective tissue mobilization in this blog post by my colleagues over at the Pelvic Health and Rehabilitation Center.

This all ties in very nicely with our current understanding of the neuroscience of pain, which of course, is where we went next.  Much of what we discussed last night can be found in greater detail in the book, Why pelvic pain hurts which I summarized for you a few weeks ago here. The key thing to recognize is that pain is our body’s alarm system— it’s meant to tell us when there is “danger” and to help us protect ourselves. For someone who has had pain for a long time, this system can become sensitized meaning that previous non-painful activities or areas of the body can start to become perceived as painful. This is also influenced by a strong “fight or flight” response which basically can make your body respond like it is constantly under attack. Our brain integrates all of this with our previous experiences, emotions, fears, etc. All of this contributes to a worsening pain experience.  The great thing is that we now know that there is so much we can do to help re-train a brain that is constantly “protecting!” 

30d490ce9760c3202eca35538740017511b77faa

So, next we moved to the most important piece…what can a skilled physical therapist do for someone with IC/PBS? 

 1. Education– knowledge is power and this is such an important component for someone with pelvic pain! We typically will discuss the following:

  • Dietary education
  • Bladder/Bowel habits
  • Sexual function
  • Sleep habits
  • Stress Management
  • Relaxation training/downtraining
  • Neuroanatomy of pelvic pain

2. Desensitizing and retraining the nervous system 

  • Manual therapy techniques (discussed more below)
  • Specific stretches to lengthen muscles
  • Graded motor imagery
  • Posture/alignment training
  • Breathing/Relaxation
  • Setting of appropriate goals, pacing and graded exposure to movements

3. Manual therapy techniques to reduce muscle soreness, improve blood flow,  and desensitize the nervous system

  • Connective tissue mobilization
  • Internal soft tissue treatment to the pelvic floor muscles
  • External soft tissue treatment to the muscles around the abdomen and pelvis
  • Dry needling
  • Scar tissue management

Recent research has shown that manual therapy for someone with IC is very effective in reducing pain. In fact, a multicenter study by Fitzgerald and colleagues in 2012 showed that 60% of women with IC who were treated with soft tissue treatments and connective tissue mobilization saw moderate-marked reductions in pain and improved urinary urgency and frequency.

We closed our discussion last night with a plan of action– reviewing some basic recommendations to get started on improving pain for people with IC.  It was wonderful to meet with this awesome support group! For those of you with IC or bladder pain, the IC Association has a list of support groups that are registered in cities in the US and internationally. They also have great options for online support groups.

If you live in Atlanta or the surrounding area, Judy Eichner is the group coordinator. She can be e-mailed at: icatlanta@live.com.

As always, I would love to hear from you! What have been your experiences with physical therapy IC? Is there anything you would like me to add for future presentations? Let me know in the comments!

Have a great weekend!

~ Jessica

Prehabilitation for Pelvic Surgeries

Getting ready to have a knee replacement? You’ll have at least a few visits of pre-operative physical therapy.

What about a rotator cuff repair? The more you get that shoulder moving and stronger before surgery the better!

Now, how about that hysterectomy? Sling procedure? Prolapse repair?

  **SILENCE**

Why is it that men and women are easily referred to physical therapy prior to knee, hip or shoulder surgeries, yet so few are referred prior to pelvic surgeries?

Now, before you get fussy with me, I will say that I have worked with some fantastic surgeons who often referred women to physical therapy prior to undergoing pelvic surgeries—and we had great results working together! We would joke regularly that I made them look better and they made me look better. We were a great team! But, the unfortunate truth is that many women are not regularly referred to PT prior to having surgeries for incontinence or prolapse—and I really do believe that “prehab” would be significantly beneficial!

Here’s why:

Just like other orthopedic surgeries (knee, shoulder, hip), preoperative pelvic physical therapy can encourage proper muscle function prior to surgical intervention.  This is such an important piece! Restoring proper motor control patterns and overall muscle function can help a person recover more quickly and improve all aspects of pelvic health (bladder, bowel and sexual function). Remember, it’s not just about the pelvic floor! We also want to make sure the transverse abdominis (lower abdominal muscle), multifidus (low back muscle) and diaphragm (breathing muscle) are working optimally as a team to modulate and control pressures in the pelvis. In addition, we need to look at the whole person. Is an old neck injury impacting how you carry your pelvis? Did you have a hip replacement that is impacting your pelvic floor? A skilled pelvic PT can evaluate and address all of these components to help a person function as well as possible prior to having surgery.

In some cases, preoperative physical therapy can reduce the need for surgery. One of the physicians I worked with used to joke with his patients that I would regularly “steal his surgeries.” Now, this may be a scary thing for a surgeon to hear, but ultimately, isn’t it our goal to get patients better using as minimally invasive treatments as we can? From a surgical perspective, pre-operative PT helps to identify the patients who truly will benefit the most from surgery and those who may just need conservative care. We know now that many patients with urinary incontinence, fecal incontinence, and low-grade (typically grade I-II) pelvic organ prolapse respond very well to physical therapy interventions focusing on regaining optimal muscle function and improving behavioral habits related to bladder/bowel health and body mechanics.  That being said, there are of course many instances where surgery is indicated and very helpful—in pelvic health, the best situation is always a partnership between physical therapist and physician! I have the utmost of respect for my physician colleagues and we both found this partnership helped us identify the best treatments for patients to get them the best results as quickly as possible.

Preoperative physical therapy can reduce risk factors which could lead to worsening of problems after surgery.  Did you know that poor body mechanics with heavy lifting as well as constipation/chronic straining are risk factors for pelvic organ prolapse and urinary incontinence? Improving body mechanics is important to make sure that the “team” of muscles that support your organs are able to function optimally. Body mechanics are an especially important component for those people who participate in activities involving heavy lifting or heavy pressure (i.e. moms, healthcare workers, runners, etc.). Along with this, managing constipation and straining is a very important component. Learning how to develop a bowel routine, sit on the toilet properly, and use proper defecation dynamics (the coordinated relaxation of the pelvic floor muscles with abdominal activation to make bowel movements easier) is crucial in ensuring a person is not putting unnecessary pressure on the pelvic organs during bowel movements.

Preoperative physical therapy can help with managing nonsurgical components. I often will work with women who are having pelvic organ prolapse and pain during intercourse. Did you know that pelvic organ prolapse is not typically a source of pain (pressure yes, pain no!)? In fact, sometimes women with pelvic pain will even have worsened pain after pelvic surgeries as the muscles and nervous system respond to protect the “injured area.” Often times, prehab can help reduce pain prior to surgery through manual treatments, relaxation training and a lot of education! This can help make recovery easier and allow a person to have significantly reduced pain later on.  Another common nonsurgical component is urge related incontinence. Prolapse surgeries and incontinence surgeries can help with stress incontinence (leaking with increased pressure, like coughing/sneezing), but they do not help the urge component. Preoperative physical therapy can help with urgency or urge related incontinence through restoring proper muscle function, teaching urgency suppression strategies and retraining behavioral habits.

So, who would benefit from pelvic floor prehab? In my mind, anyone having a pelvic surgery! I would love to see all women before hysterectomies, sling procedures, or prolapse repairs. I would love to see all men before prostatectomies! The more we can help the body heal itself and promote optimal bladder, bowel and sexual function before a surgical intervention, the more likely we are to have high quality long-lasting results.

Lastly, here’s a little teaser for you– check out our gorgeous pilates studio at our newly opened clinic!! I just had to share!

Gorgeous pilates studio at One on One Physical Therapy in Smyrna!

Gorgeous pilates studio at One on One Physical Therapy in Smyrna!

So, what do you think? PTs- did I miss any of your key reasons why you like seeing men or women preoperatively? Have any of you out there had preoperative PT? I would love to hear your thoughts!!

~ Jessica

Does Sleep Really Matter for Chronic Pelvic Pain?

I have been so fortunate to collaborate with fantastic colleagues over the years of my journey in pelvic health. Tracy Sher, MPT, CSCS is an inspirational and compassionate practitioner, educator and advocate of all things related to pelvic health. She owns a fantastic clinic in Florida and runs the popular educational blog, pelvicguru.com. I first wrote for Pelvic Guru in 2013 with 10 common misconceptions of pelvic PT (http://pelvicguru.com/2013/08/05/10-common-misconceptions-about-pelvic-physical-therapy/), and today, I am being featured again with this post on sleep and chronic pelvic pain. I hope you enjoy the post! For those of you unfamiliar with Tracy Sher, I strongly recommend following Pelvic Guru at pelvicguru.com as well as on facebook! Tracy regularly posts amazing articles, blogs, and resources! Let me know what you think!!

Pelvic Guru

Does sleep really matter for chronic pelvic pain?

Guest post by Jessica Reale, PT, DPT, WCS

Did you know that most people will spend about 22 years of their lives sleeping? Sleep is one of the most basic human needs and is at the very base of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Human Needs right next to eating, sex and toileting. (Can I just say how unfair it is that chronic pelvic pain often influences all of these things!) Inadequate sleep has become a major health crisis and the Institute of Medicine (IOM) estimates that close to 50-70 million Americans chronically suffer from a disorder of sleep and wakefulness.

maslow Image from: http://openi.nlm.nih.gov/

Inadequate sleep has been shown to negatively impact the body and is related to (IOM):

  • Obesity in adults and children
  • Diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance
  • Cardiovascular disease and hypertension
  • Anxiety symptoms
  • Depressed mood
  • Alcohol use

Sleep has incredible benefits for…

View original post 1,070 more words

LIVE Podcast with Ivy Radio on Pelvic Health– Tomorrow 3/11 at 1pm!

Tomorrow at 1pm, I will be chatting live with IvyRadio on all things pelvic health! Tune in tomorrow live at http://www.ivyrehab.com/ivyhealthhub/la-radio/ The podcast will also be available online after the show!

Hope some of you can make it! If you have any specific topics you hope I’ll touch on, let me know in the comments!

Happy Wednesday!

~Jessica

6 Reasons Why the Diaphragm may be the Coolest Muscle in the Body

I have a small confession to make– I love the study of human anatomy. Always have. It was studying human anatomy and physiology that made me shift my undergraduate degree at Gordon College away from “Biology” and into “Movement Science” (which has now become “Kinesiology”… Who would have known that years later, “Movement Science” would have been the coolest name for a major ever? Am I right fellow PTs?). The human body is fascinating and incredible. So, it should come as no shock to you that I have favorite muscles. In PT school, my favorite muscles were the ones with the most fun names… like the Gemelli brothers (who are small hip external rotators) or Sartorius (a thigh muscle…best, if sung to the tune of “Notorious“). Of course, you know that now the pelvic floor muscle group ranks pretty high on that list…but the diaphragm, well… it just takes the cake. Here are some of the reasons why the diaphragm really is so cool.

1) We can contract our diaphragm voluntarily–but it also will contract without us consciously telling it to. How cool is that? You can activate your diaphragm by taking a long, slow, breath expanding your ribcage 360 degrees and allowing your belly to relax. But, before I brought your attention to your breath, you were using the diaphragm without even thinking about it!

2) The diaphragm helps to mobilize the ribs, lumbar spine and thoracic spine. The diaphragm attaches to the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd lumbar vertebrae, the inner part of the lower 6 ribs as well as the back of the sternum at the xiphoid process. The central tendon of the diaphragm then attaches to the 3rd lumbar vertebrae. During inhalation as the diaphragm flattens to allow the lungs to fill with air, the diaphragm will “pull” slightly on each of those attachments, effectively giving you a gentle mobilization. The ribs will also move during inhalation and exhalation to allow space for the lungs to fill.

3) The diaphragm is a key member of a team of muscles which help to create dynamic postural stability. You knew that would be one of my bullets, right? I think I mention this in almost every post…but… the diaphragm works together with the pelvic floor muscles, abdominal muscles (transverse abdominis) and low back muscles (multifidus) to pre-activate and provide support to the body during movement. Together, these muscles make up our “anticipatory core” and are important muscles for healthy pain-free movement patterns. Now, no post on the diaphragm would be complete without an excellent video explanation by Julie Wiebe, PT, who is amazing and has done so much to help advance the understanding of dynamic stability in PT practice.

4)Retraining proper firing of the diaphragm can help to reduce urinary incontinence AND low back pain.  Now, that is pretty cool, right? Excellent research by Paul Hodges and colleagues has shown altered firing patterns of the diaphragm in people with low back pain or urinary incontinence.  Amazingly, when people re-established proper firing of the diaphragm leading to full excursion, both low back pain and bladder problems reduced   This is likely due to the relationship between the pelvic floor and diaphragm in controlling intraabdominal pressure within the abdomen and the pelvis.  Proper breathing helps to restore the optimal pressures needed to control movements and support the pelvic organs. This relationship is so huge that problems with breathing and continence are more correlated with low back pain than obesity and physical activity. 

5) Slow breathing with the diaphragm can calm down the nervous system.  The breath is so connected to the autonomic nervous system. When a person is fearful or anxious, the sympathetic nervous system (fight or flight response) is activated, and a person will take quick shallow breaths to bring oxygen to the muscles as quickly as possible (think: being chased by a bear)  the parasympathetic nervous system (rest and digest) is activated when in a more calm or relaxed state (yes, I am oversimplifying all of this… I know). In that state, a person will take slow calm breaths (think: sipping a cup of tea after a great massage).  The cool thing is that we can use our breath to help us move toward a more relaxed state. Slow breathing will help calm stress, anxiety and promote a person being in a more parasympathetic state. And guess what? There’s an app for that! The Breathe2Relax app for iphone/android allows a person to program in his or her breath and then takes you through a guided breathing exercise.

6) Slow breathing with the diaphragm can reduce pelvic pain. As we discussed previously, the pelvic floor and diaphragm are coordinated and work together to control pressures through the pelvis. As the diaphragm is activated during inhalation, the pelvic floor relaxes to accept the contents of the abdomen/pelvis. As we exhale, the diaphragm returns to its rested position and the pelvic floor activates slightly. Long slow breaths then encourage complete relaxation of the pelvic floor and thus can help decrease pain for people with tender pelvic floor muscles.

So, there you have it! I bet the diaphragm just moved up a few notches on your favorite muscles list (you know you want one!). If you need more reasons, and enjoy “nerding-out” with Anatomy, check out these studies:

What’s YOUR favorite muscle? Did I miss any reasons why the diaphragm is amazing? Let’s chat together in the comments below!

~ Jessica